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  • Teaching
  • Research
  • Administration

  • Student Affairs
    • Student activities, leadership development, admissions, orientation, career services, residence life, multi-cultural affairs, study abroad, international student services

  • Academic affairs
    • Academic support services
    • Advising
    • Educational advancement programs
    • Honors programs
  • Library sciences


  • Colleges and universities
  • Professional or graduate schools, including medical

  • Adult education programs
  • Vocational-technical educational programs


  • Obtain a doctorate degree to teach at colleges and universities. Maintain a high GPA and secure strong faculty recommendations to prepare for graduate school.
  • Develop one or more concentration(s), such as mathematics, medical or business ethics, science, or religion.
  • Become an effective writer.
  • Earn a master’s degree in a specialized area (e.g., College Student Personnel, Higher Education Administration, or Library and Information Sciences to work in other roles at post-secondary institutions).
  • Seek campus leadership positions such as peer mentor, orientation leader, or resident assistant.
  • Build strong interpersonal skills.



  • Teaching
  • Research

  • Medical/Clinical
  • Bioethics

  • Environmental
  • Law-related


  • Hospitals
  • Medical and professional schools
  • Colleges and universities
  • Bioethic centers

  • Research institutes
  • Medical organizations (e.g., American Medical Association)
  • Health science funding agencies


  • Environmental agencies
  • Law firms specializing in health or bioethics
  • Consulting services


  • Plan to obtain a doctorate in philosophy for academic research and teaching positions. Some hospitals and healthcare organizations prefer to hire individuals who also have a clinical background in nursing or medicine. Another potential educational path is to earn a law degree.
  • Complete an internship in a relevant setting while in graduate school to gain experience.
  • Participate in professional organizations in ethics.
  • Develop excellent research skills as well as verbal and written communication skills.
  • Demonstrate commitment to ethical issues through involvement and volunteer experiences.
  • Investigate interdisciplinary degrees in bioethics offered at some universities.

  • Prosecution
  • Defense
  • Contractual

  • Corporate
  • Nonprofit or public interest
  • Government

  • Mediation
  • Other specialties
  • Law assistance


  • Law firms
  • Federal, state, and local government
  • Private practice
  • Corporations

  • Special interest groups
  • Universities and colleges
  • Legal aid societies

  • Nonprofit and public interest organizations
    • ACLU
    • NAACP Legal Defense Fund
    • Legal Services Corporation
  • Legal clinics
  • Other private legal services


  • Plan on attending law school or a paralegal training school/program depending on area of interest.
  • Develop strong research skills and attention to detail.
  • Participate in debate or forensic team to hone reasoning, communication and critical thinking skills.
  • Choose courses or a minor to specialize in a particular area of law (e.g., a minor in business for a career in corporate law).
  • Gain experience and build skills through part-time or summer work in a law firm or an organization related to your particular interests.
  • Shadow an attorney to learn more about the field and various specialties.
  • Get involved in pre-law and mock trial organizations.
  • Volunteer with a public advocacy group. Seek experience with mediation and conflict resolution.
  • Maintain a high GPA and secure strong faculty recommendations. Prepare for the LSAT (Law School Admission Test).



  • Sales
  • Management
  • Office administration

  • Human resources
  • Training and development
  • Writing/Editing

  • Underwriting and claims management
  • Entrepreneurship


  • Product and service organizations
  • Retail stores
  • Hotels
  • Restaurants

  • Wholesalers
  • Manufacturers
  • Banks and financial institutions
  • Insurance companies

  • Real estate agencies
  • Consulting firms
  • Other business corporations
  • Entrepreneurial/start up, incubators and funding organizations


  • Earn a minor in business.
  • Develop excellent communication skills.
  • Gain experience in an area of interest through internships or other employment.
  • Obtain leadership roles in campus or community organizations.
  • Demonstrate excellent interpersonal skills and a high energy level.
  • Learn to use various technologies and software packages such as databases, spreadsheets and presentations.
  • Be prepared to start in entry level positions, such as management trainee programs.
  • Consider earning an MBA to advance into higher levels of business management.
  • Participate in campus and community “pitch” competitions and startup support organizations.


Religiously Affiliated Areas

  • Clergy and other religious leaders:
    • Buddhist, Catholic, Jewish, Protestant, Islamic, Hindu, Greek Orthodox
  • Vocation as Monk or Nun
  • Chaplaincy:
    • Military
    • Institutional

  • Mission work:
    • Church development
    • Community or agricultural development
    • Educational
    • Medical
    • Metropolitan evangelism

  • Local ministries:
    • Youth ministries
    • Adult ministries
    • Leisure ministries
    • Counseling/Recovery
    • Religious education
    • Day care, children and adult
    • Food bank/Emergency ministries
    • Family life center management
  • Music-oriented ministries
  • Religious camp administration


  • Local churches, synagogues, mosques
  • Religious organizations
  • Religious communities (e.g., convents and monasteries)
  • Religious retreat centers, Christian and Buddhist
  • Denominational boards and agencies
  • Monasteries

  • All branches of military service
  • Hospitals, hospices
  • Homes for children, youth, senior citizens
  • Correctional institutions
  • Police and fire departments

  • Missions boards
  • Local churches
  • Evangelical organizations (e.g., Billy Graham Evangelistic Association)
  • Religious-based camps and youth programs


  • Obtain general knowledge of practices, procedures, guidelines and doctrine of one’s faith.
  • Possess understanding of human spiritual and social needs.
  • Research requirements to enter leadership in the faith you want to pursue. Master of Divinity and denominational ordination are required for most clergy positions, for example.
  • Possess high moral and ethical standards.
  • Develop leadership ability and self discipline. Obtain excellent written and verbal communication skills.
  • To become a chaplain, obtain ordination and two years’ service in local church or after acceptance into branch of military service, attend chaplaincy school.
  • Obtain any needed advanced degrees, certification or licensing in area of interest for missions.
  • Seek related experience by participating with missions groups.
  • Obtain travel and cultural experience with group of interest. Foreign language skills are a plus.
  • Develop fund raising skills and contacts. People interested in religious vs. secular work possess deep faith, want more than filling one’s own personal needs and desire to make a difference.
  • May be more opportunities for specific ministries in urban areas and large religious institutions.
  • Obtain experience and contacts through extensive involvement in campus organizations or local religious institutions. Leadership on the local, state and regional level is crucial.
  • Seek camp experience to improve organization and counseling skills as well as network within the denominational/organizational structure.
  • Learn to work well with people of all different backgrounds and socioeconomic status.
  • Earn dual degrees where appropriate (e.g., music).


Social/Community Services

  • Administration/Management
  • Fund raising/Development
  • Public relations

  • Policy analysis
  • Research
  • Grant writing

  • Direct service
  • Social entrepreneurship


  • Local and national nonprofit agencies
  • Foundations
  • Charitable organizations

  • Trade or professional associations
  • Special interest groups
  • Labor unions


  • Research organizations and think tanks
  • Government Agencies
  • Incubators, start up investors


  • Seek courses with service learning components.
  • Supplement curriculum with courses in business, psychology, sociology, or social work.
  • Plan to volunteer and/or complete an internship.
  • Obtain leadership roles in relevant campus and community organizations.
  • Develop strong communication and research skills.
  • Learn how to write grants.
  • Demonstrate knowledge and experience in a specialty area (e.g., public health, environment, urban issues).
  • Research organizations’ values. It is critical that you are knowledgeable about and committed to the work you plan to do.
  • Investigate term of service or service corps positions as a way to gain entry into the field.
  • Consider earning a graduate degree for more job opportunities and advancement.
  • Participate in campus and community “pitch” competitions and startup support organizations.



  • Public policy
  • Research
  • Regional planning
  • City management

  • Intelligence
  • Foreign Service
  • Law enforcement
  • Legislative, Executive, or Judicial Services

  • Program administration
  • Elected or appointed leadership
  • Campaign management
  • Staff administration
  • Special interest advocacy


  • State and local government
  • Federal departments and agencies
  • Foreign Service
  • Federal Municipal Archives

  • National and State Endowments for the Humanities
  • Legislative, executive, or judicial officials
  • Political action committees

  • Special interest groups
  • Political parties
  • Campaigns (national, state, or local)


  • Take courses or minor in applicable interest area(s).
  • Seek leadership roles in relevant campus organizations such as model United Nations, student government, and cross-cultural organizations.
  • Write for campus publications focused on national and international affairs.
  • Participate in national campaigns.
  • Develop computer, statistics, data analysis and other functional administrative skills.
  • Acquire foreign language competency and travel experience for international positions.
  • Complete an internship with the federal government.
  • There are a large number of specialized agencies within the federal government. Extensive research will help you fi nd the right fit.
  • Earn a graduate degree in political science or public administration for advancement.
  • Become familiar with the government application process. Utilize applicable websites and seek assistance from your college career center.



  • Writing
  • Editing

  • Technical
  • Writing

  • Journalism


  • University and commerical publishing companies
  • Magazine and newspaper publishers

  • Professional and trade associations
  • Electronic media organizations

  • Websites


  • Take courses or minor in journalism, advertising, public relations, or English.
  • Develop excellent writing, editing, and desktop publishing skills.
  • Learn how to design websites.
  • Gain related experience through internships.
  • Volunteer to help campus or local organizations with their communications.
  • Serve on college newspaper or other campus publication staffs.
  • Join relevant professional associations.

General Information

  • Philosophy students develop many transferable skills that can be can be utilized in a variety of careers and jobs, demonstrating the flexibility and capacity for growth that employers find valuable. These skills include analytical, organizational, research, as well as oral and written communication.
  • Other skills emphasized in philosophy that are attractive to employers are idea generation, problem formulation and problem solving, diverse data integration, adaptation to change, the ability to elicit hidden assumptions, persuasion, and summarization of complicated material.
  • It is important for philosophy students to identify potential career goals and seek out the experiences and education required to enter those fields.
  • An undergraduate degree qualifies one for entry-level positions in business, nonprofit organizations, and government.
  • Graduate and/or professional studies usually lead to careers in law, medicine, ministry, finance, psychology, counseling, diplomacy, ethics, and related areas.
  • Ph.D. is required for college/university teaching and research.
  • Consider earning a minor or concentration in another discipline such as: mathematics, religion, science, business, political science, women’s studies, Eastern philosophy, sustainability or environmental studies.
  • Develop aptitudes for analytical thinking, logic, and statistics in order to apply philosophy to a broad range of professions such as law, government, finance, management, consulting, and related areas.
  • Seek related summer or part-time work experience or internships in area(s) of interest.
  • Join related student or professional organizations. Work toward leadership roles.
  • Conduct informational interviews or shadow professionals in fields of interest.