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Human Services

  • Direct Care:
    • Counseling
    • Case Management
    • Mental Health Services
    • Crisis Work
    • Testing/Assessment
    • Behavioral Analysis
    • Rehabilitation Services
    • Prevention Education
  • Administration:
    • Advocacy
    • Programming
    • Community Relations
    • Development/Fund Raising
    • Grant Writing
    • Non-Profit Management
    • Volunteer Coordination
  • Federal, state, and local government
  • Advocacy groups
  • Religiously-affiliated organizations
  • Non-profit/social service agencies
  • Private foundations
  • Adoption and child care agencies
  • Nursing homes and retirement communities
  • Senior citizens’ centers
  • Residential treatment facilities
  • Hospitals and wellness centers
  • Halfway houses
  • Correctional facilities
  • Vocational services
  • Educational information services
  • Hospice agencies
  • Concentrate course work or earn a minor in an area of interest such as youth, gerontology, or poverty.
  • Develop helping and communication skills through volunteer positions.
  • Obtain essential practical experience through an internship, part-time or summer job with a non-profit or social service organization.
  • Serve as a Peer Mentor, Resident Assistant, or other student leader.
  • Gain experience with diverse populations.
  • Learn a second language in order to interact with non-English speakers and increase marketability.
  • Many entry level positions require some related experience. Volunteering, part-time jobs, and internships can typically fulfill this requirement.
  • Obtain a graduate degree in a social service discipline such as social work, counseling, or psychology to increase employment opportunities.
  • Most states require licensure or certification for positions involving the direct provision of therapeutic services to clients.


Criminal Justice
See also What Can I Do With This Major in Criminal Justice?

  • Court Reporting
  • Court Administration
  • Law Enforcement
  • Corrections
  • Probation and Parole
  • Rehabilitation
  • Prevention Programming
  • Victim Service
  • Forensics/Investigation
  • Security
  • Loss Prevention/Asset Protection
  • Juvenile Justice
  • City/County Government Organizations including:
    • Police departments
    • Correction facilities
    • County sheriff departments
    • Liquor Control Commission
    • Animal control offices
  • State Government Organizations including:
    • State troopers
    • Crime labs
    • Penitentiaries
  • Federal Government Organizations including:
    • U.S. Customs and Border Protection
    • Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)
    • Internal Revenue Service (IRS)
    • Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA)
    • Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
    • Department of Homeland Security
    • Postal Service
    • U.S. Marshals Service
    • National Security Agency (NSA)
    • United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)
    • National Parks Service
    • Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF)
    • Armed services
  • Prisons/Jails
  • Detention centers
  • Youth corrections facilities
  • Airports and other transportation facilities
  • Crime laboratories
  • Colleges and universities
  • Banks
  • Choose criminal justice/criminology courses or concentration in sociology.
  • Volunteer to work with at-risk youth and families.
  • Gain experience working with diverse populations.
  • Complete a formal police academy program upon graduation for careers in law enforcement.
  • Consider obtaining experience in a branch of the military.
  • Attend a post-secondary vocational or technical college for court reporting certification programs.
  • Coursework related to the hard sciences (biology, chemistry, biochemistry) is often necessary for career opportunities in forensics. Additionally, earning a graduate degree in forensic science or a related discipline may be necessary.
  • Become familiar with the government application process and seek assistance from the campus career center.
  • Learn a second language for increased marketability.
  • Be prepared to complete physical and psychological testing, fitness evaluations, and other evaluations for entry into law enforcement and military careers.
  • For Federal government positions with organizations such as the FBI, CIA, DEA, etc. additional work experience is often required before becoming an agent.


Law
See also What Can I Do With This Major in Law?

  • Prosecution
  • Defense
  • Contractual
  • Corporate
  • Nonprofit or Public Interest
  • Government
  • Mediation
  • Lobbying
  • Law Assistance
  • Law firms
  • Federal, state and local government
  • Corporations
  • Nonprofit and public interest organizations, e.g. ACLU, NAACP Legal Defense fund, and Legal Services Corporation
  • Legal aid societies
  • Private practice
  • Colleges and universities
  • Supplement curriculum with classes that help prepare students for the rigors of law school.
  • Participate in a debate teams to hone communication skills.
  • Develop strong research skills and attention to detail.
  • Gain experience with mediation and conflict resolution.
  • Get involved with pre-law organizations.
  • Obtain a summer or part-time job in a law firm.
  • Plan to shadow an attorney to learn more about the field and various specialties. Look for ways to get experience in field of interest, e.g. sports, juvenile justice, environment, etc.
  • Plan to attend law school and earn a JD from a school accredited by the American Bar Association. Maintain an excellent GPA and secure strong faculty recommendations. Plan to take the LSAT (Law School Admissions Test).
  • Complete a certificate program to prepare for paralegal positions.


Education
See also What Can I Do With This Major in Education?

  • K-12:
    • Teaching (Elementary, Middle, Secondary)
    • School Counseling
    • Administration
  • Higher Education:
    • Teaching
    • Research
    • Administration
    • Student Affairs
  • Information/Library Services
  • Adult Learning/Community Instruction, e.g. GED classes, life skills, parenting, etc.
  • K-12 schools, public and private
  • Boards of education
  • Four-year colleges and universities
  • Two-year and community colleges
  • Technical schools
  • Medical and professional schools
  • Federal Trio programs, e.g. Upward Bound, Talent Search
  • Non-profit organizations, e.g. Project Grad, Teach for America
  • Obtain teaching licensure for desired subject area and/or grade level for public school positions. Requirements for certification/licensure vary by state. Seek guidance from the education department of your college.
  • Gain multiple certifications to increase employability.
  • Private schools may not require certification or licensure. Obtain a master’s degree in subject area for increased employability.
  • Earn Ph.D. to teach and research at four-year institutions. A master’s degree or Ph.D. is required to teach at two-year schools.
  • Participate in research as an undergraduate. Take research coursework, become involved with faculty research, get to know graduate students.
  • Join appropriate professional organization and attend conferences as a student.
  • Obtain a master’s degree in college student personnel, student development, or counseling for student affairs or administrative positions.
  • Obtain a master’s degree in school counseling to become a professional school counselor.
  • Obtain a master’s degree in library science for library positions.
  • Gain related experience on campus through student leadership opportunities such as Peer Mentors, Resident Assistants, or Orientation Leaders.


Government
See also What Can I Do With This Major in Public Administration?

  • Social Statistics
  • Program Analysis
  • Demography
  • Public Administration
  • Policy Analysis
  • Research
  • Program Development
  • Urban/City Planning
  • Federal government:
  • State and local governments
  • Earn a minor or supplement curriculum with coursework in statistics and social research.
  • Develop exceptional computer, communication, and research skills.
  • Gain practical experience through government internships, part-time jobs, or summer work.
  • Develop a specialty such as aging, family, criminal justice, or healthcare.
  • Seek leadership roles in relevant student groups.
  • Become involved in student government.
  • Participate in cross-cultural organizations. Interact with the international community on campus.
  • Maintain a strong grade point average.
  • Consider earning a graduate degree for advanced positions, e.g. public administration (MPA), public policy (MPP).
  • Research government agencies and identify federal job titles that are right for your combination of education and experience.
  • Become familiar with the government application process. Utilize applicable websites and seek assistance from campus career centers.
  • Consider beginning a career with the government by joining the military or Peace Corps. Such experiences can open doors to government positions.


Social Science Research

  • Research
  • Data Analysis
  • Policy or Program Analysis
  • Demographics
  • Market Research
  • Information Sourcing
  • Statistics
  • Federal Government organizations including:
    • Bureau of Labor Statistics
    • Bureau of Justice Statistics
    • Bureau of Economic Analysis
    • Bureau of Transportation Statistics
    • National Center for Health Statistics
    • National Center for Education Statistics
    • U.S. Census Bureau
    • Center for Disease Control
  • Local and state government agencies
  • Universities
  • Research institutes
  • Non-profit agencies
  • Private industries
  • Advertising and marketing firms
  • Consulting firms
  • Information brokers
  • Newspapers, magazines, news agencies
  • Public opinion research polls
  • Political campaigns
  • Polling firms
  • Earn a minor or supplement curriculum with coursework in statistics, research methods, and/or analysis.
  • Develop exceptional quantitative, statistical, writing, and organizational skills.
  • Learn to use statistical software packages as well as database, spreadsheet, and presentation programs.
  • Volunteer to help a professor with a research project or complete original research through an independent study class.
  • Develop an area of expertise through relevant experience, coursework, or advanced degree.
  • Obtain an advanced degree in sociology for research administration positions.
  • Earn certification in applied social research by The American Sociological Association.
  • Network with professionals working in areas of interest.
  • Gain experience working on teams and communicating ideas with others from varying disciplines


Business

  • Human Resources
    • Training and Development
    • Recruiting
  • Management
  • Sales
  • Marketing
  • Public Relations
  • Office Administration
  • Consulting
  • Market and Consumer Research
  • Insurance firms
  • Retail stores
  • Banks
  • Staffing agencies
  • Manufacturing companies
  • Service industries
  • Non-profit organizations
  • Healthcare organizations
  • Government
  • Education
  • Supplement curriculum with appropriate coursework (accounting, finance, management, etc.) or earn a minor in business or communications.
  • Gain relevant experience through part-time jobs, summer work, and internships.
  • Learn to use software applications such as spreadsheets, databases, and presentations.
  • Hone written and oral communication skills.
  • Join related professional associations.
  • Seek leadership roles on campus.
  • Be willing to start in a management-trainee program or other entry-level positions.
  • When job searching, seek employers interested in hiring “any major.”
  • Understand the top skills employers desire and be prepared to demonstrate them, such as communication (oral and written), computer, interpersonal, leadership and teamwork, etc.


Environmental Sociology

  • Land and Water Conservation
  • Planning
  • Law
  • Preserve Management
  • Natural Resource Management
  • Land Acquisition
  • Parks and Outdoor Recreation
  • Environmental Education
  • Advocacy/Lobbying
  • Administration and Management
  • Recreation Planning
  • Research
  • Site Operations and Maintenance
  • Ecotourism
  • Waste management firms
  • Health agencies
  • Local planning agencies
  • Environmental advocacy groups
  • Non-profit organizations
  • Local, state, and federal government agencies
  • National Park Service
  • State, county, or city parks
  • Consulting firms
  • Private industry
  • Media companies
  • Environmental periodicals
  • Resorts and marinas
  • Privately owned facilities
  • Tourism agencies
  • Land trust organizations such as The Nature Conservancy or Trust for Public Land
  • Enhance curriculum with courses in ecology, environmental science, and statistics.
  • Earn a minor or concentration in environmental studies or issues.
  • Obtain a graduate degree in environmental sociology or environmental studies for advancement into administrative/supervisory positions.
  • Join environment-related student organizations.
  • Join professional associations and environmental groups as ways to network.
  • Volunteer to work on environmental clean-up projects with an organization such as Student Conservation Association (SCA).
  • Gain practical experience through a related internship, part-time, or summer job.
  • Obtain a law degree for environmental law.
  • Participate in travel and/or recreation programs.
  • Learn environmental laws and regulations.


General Information and Strategies

  • Many transferable skills such as analytical, organizational, research, interpersonal, computer, leadership, teamwork, and oral/written communication are associated with the sociology degree.
  • Internships, part-time jobs, summer jobs, and/or volunteer experiences are critical to reaching career goals. Research fields of interests and gain the right skills, experiences, and advanced degrees (if necessary).
  • An undergraduate degree is sufficient for many entry-level positions in non-profit organizations, business, and government.
  • An bachelor’s in sociology prepares students for graduate or professional education in sociology, law, counseling, psychology, social work, medicine, education, college student personnel, higher education administration, planning, and other related fields. Research pre-requisites for graduate or professional programs of interest.
  • There are two main types of master’s degree programs in sociology including: traditional programs and programs with an applied, clinical, or professional track. Traditional programs are to prepare students to enter academia and a Ph.D. program. Applied, clinical, and professional programs are vocationally oriented and prepare students to enter the workforce by teaching job skills.
  • To enhance graduate or professional school opportunities, maintain a high grade point average, secure strong faculty recommendations, join student or professional organizations, and gain relevant experience outside of the classroom through work, internship, volunteer, and research opportunities.
  • Get involved with a population of interest (i.e., children, college students, elderly adults) and develop multicultural sensitivity and understanding.
  • Talk with professionals working in areas of interest and build a network of contacts.