Business

Area

Government

  • Design surveys and methodology
  • Implement experiments/Conduct field work
  • Collect, process, and analyze data
  • Interpret results

  • Clinical trial analysis
  • Reliability and quality control
  • Operations research

  • Areas of research:
    • Census, education, ecology and environment, forestry, government regulation, law, national defense, public health, population, and risk assessment

Employers

Federal government:

  • Bureau of Economic Analysis
  • Bureau of Labor Statistics
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
  • Census Bureau
  • Department of Agriculture
  • Department of Commerce

  • Department of Defense:
    • Army Research Office
    • Office of Naval Research
  • Department of Energy:
    • Office of Energy Research
  • Department of Health and Human Services
  • Department of Justice
  • Environmental Protection Agency
  • Food and Drug Administration

  • National Institutes of Health
  • National Science Foundation
  • National Institute of Standards and Technology
  • National Security Agency
  • Nuclear Regulatory Commission
  • State and local government

Strategies

  • Approximately 20% of statisticians work for the federal government, and they are found in nearly all agencies and departments. An additional 10% work in state and local governments.
  • Plan to earn a master’s or doctoral degree to qualify for most “statistician” jobs.
  • Some positions are available for students with bachelor degrees in statistics.
  • Develop a strong background in computers because they are used extensively for statistical applications.
  • Hone writing and presentation skills.
  • Complete an internship with a government organization.
  • Learn about the government hiring process and plan to apply early. Research special hiring authorizations to be hired and promoted more quickly.

Area

Health and Medicine

  • Biomedical research
  • Biostatistics/Biometrics
  • Biopharmaceutical Statistics
  • Pharmacology

  • Clinical trials
  • Epidemiology
  • Genetics
  • Public health

  • Animal health
  • Health economics
  • Market research
  • Technical writing

Employers

  • Pharmaceutical companies
  • Biotechnology firms
  • Hospitals
  • National laboratories

  • Government agencies such as:
    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
    • Food and Drug Administration
    • National Institutes of Health
    • National Center for Health Statistics

  • World Health Organization
  • Research universities
  • Animal health industry
  • Scientific journals
  • Consulting firms

Strategies

  • Supplement curriculum with courses such as biology, chemistry, ecology, and other natural sciences.  This area of statistics blends medicine and mathematics/statistics.
  • Plan to earn a master’s or doctoral degree in statistics, public health, epidemiology, related field.
  • Seek experience with a statistical software package and learn a programming language.
  • Learn to work well on interdisciplinary teams.
  • Complete a relevant internship to gain experience and to test interest in field.
  • Develop strong written and verbal communication skills. Statisticians in this field may frequently write technical reports and present findings.

Area

Industry

  • Quality control
  • Reliability
  • Product testing
  • Product development and improvement
  • Management of assets and liabilities
  • Risk assessment
  • Financial planning

  • Market research
  • Operations research
  • Purchasing
  • Management
  • Engineering applications
  • Research:
    • Agricultural, environmental, biological, chemical

  • Computer science
  • Statistical computing
  • Data processing services
  • Technical writing
  • Science journalism
  • Sports statistics

Employers

  • Research centers and laboratories
  • Pharmaceutical and biotechnology firms
  • Environmental clean-up firms
  • Chemical companies
  • Software developers
  • Computer companies
  • Internet companies

  • Engineering firms
  • Manufacturers
  • Logistics firms
  • Transportation companies
  • Communications industry
  • Utility companies
  • Financial institutions

  • Insurance companies
  • Consumer marking firms
  • Statistics agencies
  • Data collection services
  • Consulting firms
  • Nonprofit organizations

Strategies

  • Nearly all industries have a need for statisticians.  Conduct informational interviews with professionals in a variety of settings to help determine career goals
  • Take a well-rounded selection of courses depending upon areas of interest, (e.g., content) business or science.
  • Plan to earn a master’s or doctoral degree for higher level positions.
  • Gain relevant experience through internships.
  • Develop a strong background in computers because they are used extensively for statistical applications.
  • Learn to work well both independently and on interdisciplinary teams.
  • Develop the ability to communicate statistical aspects of business decisions to a wide array of people.
  • Regarding sports statistics: few statisticians work full-time in this field. Some may be hired by professional sports teams or major television networks.  Many in this field are paid per game.  Start gaining experience in the field by volunteering or working part-time for local high schools and college sports programs.  Seek an internship in sports statistics.

Area

Operations Management

  • Operations research analysis:
    • Business strategy
    • Facilities layout
    • Inventory control
    • Personnel scheduling

  • Production management:
    • Line supervision
    • Manufacturing management
    • Production planning
    • Quality assurance

Materials Management:

  • Purchasing/Buying
  • Traffic management
  • Inventory management

Employers

  • Manufacturers
  • Industrial organizations

  • Service organizations
  • Logistics firms

  • Airlines and other transportation companies

Strategies

  • Develop strong analytical skills and a logical approach to problem solving.
  • Take additional courses in management.
  • Acquire skills in budgeting and cost management.
  • Learn to manage multiple situations and problems.
  • Develop the ability to communicate effectively with different types of people in various functional areas.
  • Earn an MBA to reach higher levels of operations management.

Area

Banking and Finance

  • Corporate and consumer credit analysis
  • Commercial lending
  • Trust management
  • Capital services and mergers and acquisitions
  • Mortgage loans

  • Originations and packaging
  • Branch management
  • Operations
  • Cash management

  • Credit scoring and risk management
  • Private banking
  • Financial analysis
  • Investment banking

Employers

  • Commercial banks
  • Credit unions
  • Savings and loan associations
  • Savings banks
  • Mortgage banks
  • Captive finance companies

  • Regulatory agencies:
    • Federal Reserve
    • Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)
    • Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC)
    • Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS)
  • Brokerage firms

Strategies

  • Build a solid background in business: marketing, finance, and accounting.
  • Gain experience through part-time, summer or internship positions in a financial service firm.
  • Develop strong interpersonal and communication skills in order to work well with a diverse clientele.
  • Plan to earn an MBA to enter investment banking.
  • Research professional certifications that may be valuable in this field.

Area

Insurance

  • Actuary science
  • Risk management/Assessment

  • Loss management/Control
  • Underwriting

Employers

  • Insurance carriers
  • Insurance agents and brokers

  • Professional, scientific, and technical consulting firms
  • Government agencies

Strategies

  • Take additional courses in mathematics and finance.
  • Complete an internship with an insurance agency to gain relevant experience.
  • Talk to professionals in the industry to learn more about claims, underwriting, and risk management.  Many entry-level positions exist in these areas.
  • Develop strong communication skills, as many positions require interaction with others and the ability to explain information clearly and concisely.
  • Learn how to use statistical analysis software and various computer programming languages.
  • More than half of actuaries work for insurance carriers.
  • Plan to take a series of actuarial exams to gain licensure from either the Society of Actuaries or the Casualty Actuarial Society. The type of insurance you deal with will determine which path to pursue. Most actuaries take these exams while working full-time, and the process takes several years.

Area

Education

  • Teaching
  • Research

Employers

  • Colleges and universities

Strategies

  • Plan to earn a doctoral degree.
  • Maintain a high undergraduate GPA and secure strong recommendations from faculty.
  • Volunteer to assist a faculty member with his or her research or find a part-time job as a research assistant.

General Information

  • Statistics can be used in a wide variety of fields within science, technology, business, medicine, and social sciences.  Gain knowledge or take courses in a specific field of interest, such as medicine or finance, to pair with skills in statistics, math, and computers.
  • The job outlook for statisticians is very strong because businesses have more access to data than ever before and that data requires analysis.
  • Most “statistician” and upper level research jobs in either government or industry will require at least a master’s degree.
  • An undergraduate degree in statistics can be used in a variety of business settings if combined with relevant experience and skills.  Choose concentrations or minors that will enhance a degree in statistics.  Take courses in forecasting and applied time series which are particularly sought after by employers.  Plan to complete one or more internships.
  • Some positions in business, such as sales and management, are open to any major. Seek experiences and build skills that will help you prepare for these jobs.
  • Strong communication skills are critical in the field of statistics in order to communicate statistical information clearly to people who do not have technical backgrounds. Writing and presentation skills are also frequently used.
  • Get involved with campus organizations to build leadership and teamwork skills.
  • Conduct informational interviews with professionals in fields of interest to learn more about their work and to build a network of contacts.
  • To prepare for graduate school, maintain a high grade point average and secure strong faculty recommendations.
  • Statistics can be a good preparation for graduate degrees in other fields such as law, business, or public health.
  • Join the American Statistical Association and use its website as a resource to research career opportunities.

Area

Amateur Athletics

  • Sport management:
    • Olympic
    • Intercollegiate
    • High school
    • Youth
  • Athletic administration
  • Coaching
  • Recruiting

  • Student-athlete affairs
  • Compliance
  • Sport information
  • Operations
  • Facilities management
  • Equipment management
  • Ticketing and sales

  • Public relations
  • Marketing
  • Sponsorship sales
  • Fundraising/Development
  • Hospitality management
  • Bowls and special events
  • Sport governance

Employers

  • Colleges and universities
  • National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA)
  • Conference offices (e.g., SEC, ACC)
  • National sport governing bodies
  • State governing bodies
  • Regional sport commissions

  • International Olympic Committee (IOC)
  • United States Olympic Committee (USOC)
  • High schools
  • Special Olympics
  • National Federation of State High School Associations (NFHS)

 

  • Training centers
  • Youth sport organizations (e.g., Little League Baseball)
  • YMCA’s, YWCA’s
  • Sport related franchises (e.g., My Gym)
  • Sport camps

Strategies

  • Gain experience working with youth (e.g., content) volunteer or work at sport and recreation camps.
  • Coach youth sport teams or assist with high school teams.
  • Get involved with college sport teams, intramural leagues, or campus recreational programs.
  • Seek leadership roles in campus organizations. Serve as a peer advisor, tutor, resident assistant, etc.
  • Build relationships on campus with coaches and athletic administrators.
  • Gain relevant experience through practicum and internships.
  • Be prepared to work long and irregular hours.
  • Plan to earn a master’s degree in sport management, preferably from an accredited sports-focused school in sport management, business, or college student personnel for more opportunities and advancement. Work as a graduate assistant (GA) in the athletic department.
  • Obtain an assistant position and then head coach position at the university level to increase possibility of progressing to professional level.

Area

Facilities and Event Management

  • Facility management
  • Facility/Field maintenance
  • Field preparation and conversion

  • Ticket sales and seating management
  • Marketing and advertising
  • Event planning and management

 

  • Food services and concessions
  • Design and development
  • Real estate and property management

Employers

  • Stadiums
  • Arenas
  • Golf courses
  • Tracks

  • Convention and visitors bureaus
  • Industry suppliers (e.g., Aramark)
  • Local tournaments and festivals

  • Recreational facilities
  • City parks and recreation departments
  • Individual teams

Strategies

  • Find a job managing facilities or fields on campus.
  • Work in the university center or union.
  • Get involved in organizations responsible for bringing cultural attractions and entertainers to campus for exposure to contracts, negotiating, and making arrangements.
  • Gain event planning and leadership experience by serving as the events coordinator or social chair with a student organization.
  • Work part-time or summer jobs in conference and convention centers, hotels, or local attractions.
  • Volunteer to work on community events (e.g., content) local races or festivals.
  • Join organizations or take courses related to environmental stewardship and sustainability.
  • To succeed in this area, demonstrate skills in negotiating, business management, organization, budgeting, and marketing.
  • Research requirements for the Certified Facility Manager (CFM) credential.

Area

Professional Teams and Leagues

  • Management:
    • Football, baseball, basketball, hockey, golf, tennis, racing, motor sports, soccer, and emerging sports
  • Player personnel:
    • General management
    • Coaching
    • Scouting
    • Community relations

  • Business operations:
    • Marketing and promotions
    • Ticketing and sales
    • Public relations
    • Sponsorship sales
    • Suite sales
  • Stadium operations:
    • Food and concession
    • Guest services/Suite services
    • Parking

  • Sport information
  • Professional services
  • Player agency and representation

Employers

  • Professional leagues:
    • National Football League, Major League Baseball, National Basketball Association, Major League Soccer, Arena Football League, National Hockey League, Women’s National Basketball Association, Women’s Professional Soccer, Women’s Tennis Association
  • Motor sport organizations:
    • National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR), Indy Racing League, National Hot Rod Association, individual race teams

  • Sport associations:
    • PGA Tour, LPGA Tour, Senior PGA Tour, Web.com Tour United States Tennis Association
  • Professional player associations and unions (e.g., Major League Baseball Players Association, Professional Hockey Players’ Association)
  • Player alumni associations
  • Professional minor leagues:
    • AAA, AA, A baseball leagues, American Basketball Association, American Hockey League

  • Individual franchises
  • Sport marketing firms
  • Management firms
  • Sport marketing departments in large corporations (e.g., Anheuser-Busch or AT&T)
  • Law firms focusing on sport and entertainment

 

Strategies

  • Plan to earn a graduate degree in sport management, business, or related area and acquire relevant experience in order to work in professional sports.
  • Be willing to relocate to larger cities where the teams are situated.
  • These positions are among the most competitive in the industry. Gain as much experience as possible and be willing to enter into the field in the minor leagues or in lower positions.
  • Demonstrate enthusiasm, energy, good decision-making skills, ability to adapt quickly and a willingness to work long or irregular hours.
  • Look for ways to get experience in sales and marketing as these are important skills to develop.
  • Become familiar with legal and regulatory issues related to coaching (e.g., content) NCAA regulations.
  • Earn a law degree and develop skills in investment management and negotiation to represent players as an agent. Research requirements for union franchises, licenses, or registrations to work in this field.

Area

Sports Merchandising

  • Product development
  • Product distribution

  • Sales and marketing
  • Brand/Product representation

  • Store management
  • Internet sales

Employers

  • Sport equipment and supply industry (e.g., Wilson, Spalding, Adidas)
  • Exercise equipment manufacturers

  • Sport and recreation retailers
  • Online sport retailers

  • Sports & Fitness Industry Association

Strategies

  • Work in retail stores that sell sport or recreational merchandise or in campus recreation facilities that rent equipment to students.
  • Gain sales experience through part-time or summer jobs and internships.
  • Volunteer as a team equipment manager.
  • Make contact with college equipment or uniform representatives.
  • Develop excellent interpersonal, communication, and customer services skills.

Area

Leisure and Fitness

  • Programming
  • Management and administration
  • Facilities/Equipment management

  • Operations
  • Travel planning
  • Event planning

  • Instruction
  • Sales and marketing

 

Employers

  • Ski resorts
  • Tennis and golf clubs/resorts
  • Health and fitness clubs
  • Country clubs
  • Racquet clubs

  • Executive fitness centers
  • Major health spas
  • Hotels
  • Parks
  • Recreational facilities

 

  • Hospitality and travel industry
  • YMCA’s and YWCA’s
  • Related nonprofit organizations (e.g., Boys’ and Girls’ Clubs of America, Special Olympics)
  • Sport related museums and attractions

Strategies

  • Gain relevant experience through part-time or summer jobs or internships.
  • Work in campus recreation and fitness facilities.
  • Spend summers as an outdoor guide or tour guide.
  • Get involved in campus recreational organizations.
  • Volunteer to plan and lead outings or trips.
  • Join student organizations such as campus entertainment board, cultural attractions committee or student union.
  • Maintain excellent personal fitness and athletic proficiency.
  • Develop strong communication, interpersonal, planning, creativity and organizational skills.

Area

Sport Media

  • Journalism
  • Broadcasting

  • Photojournalism
  • Sport information

  • Advertising sales

Employers

  • Newspapers
  • Television stations
  • Radio stations

  • Magazines
  • Special interest sport publications
  • Sport related internet sites

  • Colleges and universities
  • Nonprofit organizations
  • Professional associations

Strategies

  • Supplement a major in sport management with journalism and broadcasting classes. Earn a double major or minor if possible.
  • Complete an internship or work part-time at a newspaper or radio/television station.
  • Publish as much as possible in college and local newspapers. Work as a sport writer or photographer on campus.
  • Volunteer at the campus radio or television station.
  • Create a portfolio of published work, articles, and photographs or an online portfolio highlighting digital media skills (e.g., content) website or blog.
  • Plan to start career in small markets and be willing to relocate to work into major markets.
  • Develop a solid command of sports, the ability to interview people, and excellent communication skills.

General Information

  • The field of sport management is extremely competitive. Candidates must be willing to start at the bottom and work their way up.
  • Gain as much hands-on experience in the industry as possible through practicums, internships, and volunteer positions. As a student, be willing to work for no pay in order to gain the necessary experience.
  • Once an area of interest is identified, find ways to gain experience and skills particular to that field.
  • Learn to work well on a team and learn how to get along with different personality types.
  • Develop strong skills in sales and marketing as these are critical in many aspects of sport management. Many entry-level jobs in sport related fields are in sales.
  • Demonstrate energy, enthusiasm, and a strong work ethic. Be prepared to work long and irregular hours, including weekends and holidays.
  • Build relationships with coaches, athletic directors, college equipment/uniform representatives, and student athletes. Networking is a very important skill to develop in this field and can lead to job opportunities.
  • Join relevant professional associations; attend their conferences and read their journals.
  • Earn a graduate or law degree in areas such as sport management, law, business, or college student personal for increased opportunities.
  • Sport management majors often find work in other areas and industries, particularly in sales and management.

Area

Buying/Purchasing

  • Product development

  • Planning and allocation

 

  • Global sourcing

 

Employers

  • Discount stores
  • Department stores
  • Mass merchants

  • Specialty stores: grocery, clothing, electronics, health and personal care, sporting goods, building materials and garden supply, furniture and home furnishings, etc.

  • Online retailers

Strategies

  • Obtain sales and retail experience through part-time jobs and internships.
  • Supplement curriculum with business courses as some employers prefer it and others require it.
  • Develop organizational skills and attention to detail to monitor inventory and compare products, prices, and markets.
  • Forecasting skills are expected as buyers select merchandise that may sell six months later.
  • Acquire analytical and mathematical skills to operate within a budget and to evaluate sales data including competitors’.
  • Build excellent interpersonal and communication skills for negotiating with vendors. Prepare to work under pressure and exhibit good judgment and decisiveness.
  • Be prepared to travel frequently in order to visit fashion and trade shows and industry conferences to search for new merchandise.  Overtime is generally required.
  • Expect to work with overseas suppliers. Knowledge of languages, customs, and cultures will be helpful.
  • Exhibit a competitive drive with the understanding that a buyer’s goal is to beat the sales and profit records of the previous year.
  • Be prepared to begin as a buyer trainee. Training periods can range from 1 to 5 years.

Area

Management/Administration

  • Corporate
  • Regional
  • Store

  • Store assistant
  • Store department

Employers

  • Discount stores
  • Department stores
  • Mass merchants

  • Specialty stores: grocery, clothing, electronics, health and personal care, sporting goods, building materials and garden supply, furniture and home furnishings, etc.

  • Online retailers

Strategies

  • Seek retail experience through internships or part-time jobs.
  • Get involved in student organizations and pursue leadership roles.
  • Be prepared to start in entry-level management trainee positions.
  • Learn to work well on a team and to motivate and   direct others. Managers may be expected to train, evaluate, and coach junior team members.
  • Develop quick decision-making, problem solving, and communication skills to assist customers, manage employees, monitor promotions and sales goals, and work with buyers.
  • Exhibit excellent organizational skills which are necessary to oversee the daily operations of a store or a department.
  • Plan to work long and irregular hours, including holidays, especially during peak sales times.

Area

Sales

  • Retail
  • Industrial
  • Wholesale
  • Direct marketing

  • Consumer product
  • Financial services
  • Insurance
  • Real estate

  • Advertising
  • E-commerce
  • Customer service

Employers

  • Discount stores
  • Department stores
  • Mass merchants
  • Specialty stores: grocery, clothing, electronics, health and personal care, sporting goods, building materials and garden supply, furniture and home furnishings, etc.

  • Online retailers
  • Call centers
  • Consumer product companies
  • Service organizations (estate planning, fundraising)
  • Non-profit organizations

  • Manufacturers
  • Financial companies
  • Insurance companies
  • Print and electronic media outlets

Strategies

  • Obtain a part-time job or internship in sales to gain experience as these positions are often stepping stones to higher-level positions.
  • Demonstrate initiative, persistence, and competitive drive. Some positions require employees to reach sales quotas under pressure.
  • Learn to communicate effectively with a wide-range of people. Take additional courses in interpersonal, public, and persuasive communication.
  • Exhibit a commitment to customer satisfaction.
  • Seek knowledge of trends in loss prevention and the processes for handling security risks as you will likely receive training in these areas.
  • Prove extensive knowledge of merchandise for sale.
  • Expect to work evenings, weekends, and holidays during peak times.

Area

Human Resources

  • Recruiting/Staffing
  • Compensation
  • Benefits
  • Orientation/Training

  • Safety/Health
  • Employee relations
  • Employee services
  • Organizational development

Employers

  • Discount stores
  • Department stores
  • Mass merchants

  • Specialty stores: grocery, clothing, electronics, health and personal care, sporting goods, building materials and garden supply, furniture and home furnishings, etc.
  • Online retailers

Strategies

  • Supplement degree program with classes in psychology, sociology, and human resource development.
  • Gain relevant experience through internships.
  • Acquire strong verbal and written communication skills.
  • Learn to solve problems creatively and resolve conflicts.
  • Develop strong computer skills as many human resource systems are automated.
  • Join the Society of Human Resource Management and other related professional associations.
  • Seek endorsements such as the Professional       Human Resource Certification (PHR).
  • Earn a master’s degree in human resource management for career advancement.

Area

Visual Merchandising

  • Space planning

Employers

  • Discount stores
  • Department stores
  • Mass merchants

  • Specialty stores: grocery, clothing, electronics, health and personal care, sporting goods, building materials and garden supply, furniture and home furnishings, etc.

Strategies

  • Demonstrate creativity and knowledge of design concepts (lighting, color, etc.) to highlight products and increase sales.
  • Knowledge of fashion and sales trends is required.
  • Seek retail sales experience and plan to shadow or intern with a visual merchandiser.
  • Supplement degree with courses on buying behavior, consumer psychology, interior design, art, fashion design, and interior decorating.
  • Develop mechanical aptitude to set up displays, build props and adjust lighting. Expect to lift and carry merchandise, use ladders, and be comfortable with heights.
  • Plan to work flexible hours, including mornings, evenings, and weekends. Travel to multiple locations may be required.

Area

Independent Sales

  •  Sales
  • Consulting

Employers

  • Self-employed

  • Companies that utilize independent consultants:  Mary Kay Cosmetics, Avon, Stella & Dot, Thirty-One, Pampered Chef

Strategies

  • Exhibit entrepreneurial spirit, self-discipline, and perseverance, all of which are keys to success.
  • Develop an excellent knowledge of and belief in a particular product or service.
  • Supplement program with courses in accounting and advertising.
  • Obtain extensive sales and business experience by working for a company or retailer in a related product area before launching a small business.
  • Build relationships with potential investors and customers.

Area

Non-Store Retailing

  • E-commerce

Direct Marketing:
Paper and electronic catalogs
Door-to-door solicitation/sales

Employers

  • Online retailers
  • Home shopping networks
  • Advertising agencies

  • Magazine, newspaper, book publishing companies
  • Internet marketing companies

Strategies

  • Develop strong technical and communication skills.
  • Supplement  program with courses in marketing, advertising, or communications.
  • Obtain sales experience through a retail or telemarketing position.

General Information

  • The retail industry is the nation’s largest industry sector employer.
  • Obtain retail experience through summer jobs, part-time jobs, or internships.
  • Computer knowledge is crucial. Become familiar with software and technology related to sales, distribution, and inventory tracking such as JDA.
  • Join student branches of professional retailing associations. Read their publications and attend their meetings to stay abreast of changing trends in the field, (i.e., content) “shopper marketing.”
  • Maintain up-to-date knowledge of trends in retail through industry publications.  Attend professional conferences.
  • Be prepared to work holidays and weekends, typically the busiest times for retailers.
  • Consider developing proficiency in second or third languages to increase marketability.
  • Contact stores or markets of interest. Inquire about management training programs.
  • Most retailers promote from within the organization; therefore, management trainee programs or sales associate positions are a good way to begin.
  • Supplement program with courses in marketing, accounting, and communications.
  • A degree in Retail/Merchandising may qualify one for career opportunities in areas of business outside of retail including marketing, finance, insurance, banking, management, etc. Determine an area of interest and build relevant skills and experiences.

Area

Account Management

  • Sales
  • Development
  • Marketing

  • Administration
  • Event planning
  • Employee or member relations

  • Media relations
  • Customer service
  • Research

Employers

  • Public relations firms representing:
    • Private and public organizations, individuals, and events
  • PR departments in large corporations
  • Public opinion research firms
  • Advertising agencies

  • Radio and television companies
  • Sports and entertainment organizations
  • Hospitality and tourism industry
  • Nonprofit organizations

  • Government agencies
  • Labor unions
  • Consulting firms
  • Freelance

Strategies

  • Strengthen verbal communication skills by taking speech communication courses.
  • Enhance writing skills through additional coursework.
  • Learn to work well with teams.
  • Serve as public relations officer of an organization.
  • Get involved with related professional associations as a student member.
  • Acquire one or more public relations internships even if unpaid.
  • Be prepared to start at the bottom and work up to higher positions.
  • Consider a master’s degree in public relations for higher level positions, especially at the executive level.
  • Find a mentor in the field to guide your own career planning.
  • Be willing to move to locations with more job opportunities.

Area

Media

  • Writing
  • Editing
  • Copywriting
  • Reporting

  • Broadcasting
  • Producing
  • Managing/Directing

  • Research
  • Media sales
  • Media planning

Employers

  • Publishing firms:
    • Newspapers, magazines, and books
  • Wire services and syndicates
  • Newspapers
  • Magazines

  • Literary agencies
  • Internet sites/online news providers
  • Television and radio stations
  • Film industry
  • Freelance

Strategies

  • Develop the ability to work under the pressure of deadlines in a fast-paced environment.
  • Work for campus or local newspaper, radio station, or television station.
  • Complete internships in relevant settings.
  • Learn applications related to web page design, desk top publishing, and other relevant technology.
  • Obtain sales experience.
  • Get involved with national and campus professional associations.
  • Develop excellent interpersonal, presentation, and research skills.
  • Be willing to take any job you can to get a foot in the door with an organization of interest.
  • Develop a portfolio or audition tape depending on the industry.

Area

Business and Industry

  • Advertising sales
  • Sales
  • Marketing
  • Customer service

  • Management
  • Insurance underwriting and claims
  • Training and development

  • Human resources
  • Labor relations
  • Writing/Editing

Employers

  • Public and private corporations
  • Marketing companies
  • Internet marketers
  • Sport and athletic organizations

  • Retail stores
  • Hotels
  • Restaurants
  • Hospitals and other healthcare organizations

 

  • Financial companies
  • Insurance firms
  • Real estate companies
  • Print and electronic media
  • Other product and service providers
  • Consulting firms

Strategies

  • Earn a minor or double major in business.
  • Obtain sales and marketing experience through part-time or summer jobs.
  • Develop strong verbal and written communication skills.
  • Complete internships in fields of interest to build the skills and experiences valuable to employers.
  • Hone computer skills and learn applications such as databases, spreadsheets, and presentations.
  • Demonstrate excellent interpersonal skills and learn to work well on a team.
  • Get involved in student professional associations and other campus organizations.
  • Consider earning a graduate degree in business to increase opportunities for advancement.
  • Stay current with business and industry literature and news.
  • Become knowledgeable about corporate social responsibility.
  • Build a network of contacts.

Area

Government

  • Public affairs
  • Risk and crisis communication
  • Campaign marketing and fund raising
  • Campaign management
  • Media relations

  • Public information
  • City or town management
  • Programming
  • Research
  • Lobbying

  • Conflict negotiation
  • Program administration
  • Community affairs
  • General services
  • Legislative, Executive, or Judicial Services

Employers

  • Federal government:
    • There are over 170 departments and agencies
  • State governments
  • Counties
  • Municipalities

  • Townships
  • School districts
  • Court system
  • Campaign committees

  • Special action committees
  • Elected officials
  • Political parties
  • Lobbying firms

Strategies

  • Take courses or minor in applicable interest area(s).
  • Develop strong research, writing, conflict management, and negotiation skills.
  • Work on student government or local political campaigns.
  • Join related campus organizations and seek leadership roles.
  • Develop multi-cultural competence and learn to work well a variety of people.
  • There are a large number of specialized agencies within local, state, and federal government. Do extensive research to find the area that best fits your interests and goals.
  • Complete an internship with a government agency.
  • Maintain a strong GPA as many government programs are competitive.
  • Learn government job application processes. Seek assistance at your college career center.
  • Develop a network of contacts through referrals and informational interviews.
  • Consider earning a graduate degree in public policy/ affairs, public administration, or related areas.

Area

Nonprofit

  • Public relations
  • Promotion
  • Event planning
  • Service marketing
  • Administration

  • Community affairs
  • Fund raising/Development
  • Research
  • Program coordination

  • Grant writing
  • Writing/Editing
  • Volunteer coordination
  • Training

Employers

  • Local and national nonprofit organizations
  • Charities and foundations
    • within the areas of environment, arts, multicultural initiatives, religion, and health
  • Hospitals and healthcare providers

  • Educational institutions
  • Museums
  • Historical sites and societies
  • Libraries

  • Chambers of commerce
  • Professional associations
  • Special interest groups
  • Labor unions

Strategies

  • Gain experience through internships or volunteer positions with non-profit entities.
  • Get involved planning events or fund raising for campus or local organizations.
  • Demonstrate knowledge and experience in a specialty area, (e.g., public health, environment, urban issues). Consider a minor or specific courses to develop this expertise.
  • Learn to work well with different types of people.
  • Develop a wide array of skills including writing, speaking, budgeting, grant writing, and leadership.
  • Consider earning a graduate degree in public administration or nonprofit management to position yourself for great opportunities.

Area

Social Media Management

  • Strategy
  • Content planning
  • Community management

  • Marketing and promotions
  • Blogging
  • Copy writing

  • Search engine marketing
  • Online customer service

Employers

  • Public relations firms
  • Marketing agencies
  • Advertising agencies

  • Social media management companies
  • Media outlets
  • Corporations in a variety of industries

  •  Web application companies
  • Freelance

Strategies

  • Get experience with social media platforms, (e.g., Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter) and location- based social media sites, (e.g., Yelp and Gowalla).
  • Be adept at learning new technology and tools quickly.  Stay abreast of industry news.
  • Establish an online presence for yourself, and use it in your job search.
  • Complete an internship in social media.
  • Volunteer to maintain social media for campus organizations.
  • Develop skills important to this field including: communication, creativity, relationship building, and project management.
  • Take courses in marketing, journalism, copy writing, and technology.
  • Research an industry of interest to learn about its social media presence.
  • Learn how to effectively manage negative press.

Area

Education

  • Teaching
  • Research
  • Administration

  • Student Affairs
    • Student activities, leadership development, admissions, orientation, career services, residence life, multi-cultural Affairs, study abroad, international student services

  • Academic affairs
    • Academic support services
    • Advising, educational advancement programs
    • Honors programs
  • Library sciences

Employers

  • Colleges and universities
  • Professional and graduate schools

  • Adult education programs
  • Vocational-technical educational programs

Strategies

  • Obtain a doctorate degree to teach at colleges and universities.
  • Earn a master’s degree in a specialized area (e.g., College Student Personnel, Higher Education Administration, or Library and Information Sciences) to work in other roles at post-secondary institutions.
  • Maintain a high GPA and secure strong faculty recommendations to prepare for graduate school.
  • Seek campus leadership positions such as peer mentor, orientation leader, or resident assistant.
  • Build strong interpersonal skills.

General Information

  • Develop excellent communication skills, both verbal and written. Creativity and good judgment are also critical skills in this field.
  • Demonstrate enthusiasm and energy for the field.
  • Obtain part-time, summer job, internship, or volunteer experience within an area of interest. Public relations is a competitive field and related experience is essential to break into the industry.
  • Explore specializations within major and field. Select electives or earn a minor to enhance knowledge in area(s) of interest.
  • Participate in co-curricular activities to develop skills such as public speaking, team work, leadership, event planning, and fund raising. Join professional
    associations related to public relations.
  • Make the most of public relations campaign classes to learn as much as possible and to generate items for a portfolio.
  • Be prepared to start at the bottom and work up to positions of greater responsibility. Expect to complete administrative tasks in entry-level jobs.
  • Develop and utilize a personal network of contacts. Once in a position, find an experienced mentor.
  • Obtain additional or advanced degrees to enhance knowledge of specific area of interests. For instance, a Master of Public Policy (MPP) will increase employability in government and non-profit agencies.

Area

Thank you to staff at Belmont University Career Services for creating this resource. Its format varies slightly from other titles in the series.

  • Music publishing/Administration
  • Accounting/Finance/Royalty management
  • Business management
  • A&R (Artists and Repertoire)/Talent scouting
  • Song plugging
  • Songwriting
  • Radio/Concert promotions
  • Radio
  • Artist management/Development
  • Digital marketing/New media/Social media
  • Marketing

  • Merchandise design/Production/Sales
  • Tour management/Road management
  • Venue management
  • Booking
  • Publicity/Styling
  • Public relations/Media relations
  • Event planning/ Sponsorships/Festivals
  • Personal/Executive assistance
  • Copyright management
  • Entertainment law

  • Music licensing
  • Music supervision
  • Recording studio management
  • Audio engineering
  • Audio/Sound design
  • Broadcast audio
  • Music journalism/Film and TV writer
  • Record/Video/TV production
  • Stage design and management
  • Lighting design

Employers

  • Music publishing firms
  • Business management firms
  • Booking agencies
  • Performance rights organizations
  • Record labels
  • Artist management firms
  • Licensing firms
  • Professional sports teams

  • Event management firms
  • Corporate marketing/advertising agencies
  • Entertainment venues
  • Talent agencies
  • Radio/TV stations
  • Entertainment law firms
  • Entertainment magazines
  • Nonprofit organizations

  • Theatres (e.g., Broadway, off-Broadway, local)
  • Music studios
  • Audio equipment manufacturers/dealers
  • TV and film production studios
  • Video game designers/producers
  • Independent/Freelance work

Strategies

  • Volunteer for industry events and non-profit benefits.
  • Complete and excel in entertainment internships.
  • Work for a campus or local radio station.
  • Manage a local band/artist.
  • Gain experience by working at a local venue.
  • Take courses in marketing, accounting, finance, communications, entrepreneurship, public relations, management, and others related to entertainment.
  • Increase digital marketing and technology skills by taking additional courses in graphic design and web design.
  • Promote campus events online through digital marketing and social media.
  • Produce a local band or artist’s record.
  • Engage with booking agencies through talent buying for campus concerts.
  • Get involved with campus student activity boards or student unions.
  • Work in an audio equipment rental/sales store to learn more about equipment and maintaining it.
  • Conduct informational interviews with people in jobs of interest, and build a strong network of contacts.
  • Organize songwriting sessions with other students.
  • Join local entertainment organizations.
  • Acquire sales experience inside or outside of the industry.
  • Find sponsors for campus events or benefits.
  • Write blogs/articles/press releases for school publications, events, and student organizations.

Area

Sales and Promotion

  • Industrial sales
  • Wholesale sales
  • Consumer product sales
  • Financial services sales
  • Services sales
  • Advertising sales

  • Corporate sales
  • Manufacturer representation
  • Direct consumer sales
  • E-commerce
  • Sales management:
    • District, regional, and higher

  • Promotion:
    • Consumer
    • Trade
    • Sales force
  • Customer service

Employers

  • For-profit and nonprofit organizations
  • Product and service organizations
  • Manufacturers

  • Financial companies
  • Insurance companies
  • Print and electronic media outlets

  • Software and technology companies
  • Internet companies
  • Consulting firms

Strategies

  • Obtain experience through internships or summer and part-time jobs.
  • Seek leadership positions in campus organizations.
  • Work for the campus newspaper, directory, or radio station selling advertisements.
  • Become highly motivated and well-organized.  Learn to work well under pressure and to be comfortable in a competitive environment.
  • Be prepared to work independently and to be self-motivated. Plan to work irregular and long hours.
  • Develop strong persuasion skills.  Learn how to communicate effectively with a wide range of people and build relationships. Take courses in interpersonal communication and public speaking.
  • Develop a strong knowledge base of the product or service you are selling.
  • To deliver effective customer service, develop problem solving skills, self-confidence, assertiveness, and empathy.  Become committed to customer satisfaction.
  • Some positions in sales, such as pharmaceuticals, require at least one to two years of a proven record in outside sales. Be prepared to start in a different industry before getting a job in pharmaceuticals.

Area

Marketing Management

Marketing is a functional area that falls in between product development and sales.

  • Product management
  • Brand management
  • Marketing strategy management
  • Advertising management

Employers

  • Consumer products corporations
  • Service providers

  • Industrial goods manufacturers
  • Software and technology companies

  • Advertising and public relations firms
  • Market research firms

Strategies

  • Plan on pursuing an MBA and an internship for most brand or product management positions.
  • Creativity and analytical skills are both critical to success in this field.
  • Develop strong communication skills and learn to work well on cross-functional teams.
  • Obtain a broad background in advertising, research, consumer behavior, and strategy.
  • Be prepared to start in assisting roles and work your way up.

Area

Market Research

  • Data collection:
    • Primary
    • Secondary
  • Field service

  • Survey research
  • Data analysis
  • Evaluation design
  • Forecasting

  • Reporting
  • Project management
  • Management

Employers

  • Large corporations
  • Marketing research firms
  • Public institutions concerning health, education, and transportation

  • Management consulting firms
  • Advertising agencies
  • Manufacturers
  • Retailers

  • Trade and industry associations
  • Government agencies
  • Nonprofit organizations

Strategies

  • Build a solid background in statistics, mathematics, and behavioral science. Strong analytical and problem solving skills, and an attention to detail are critical.
  • Learn how to use databases and other marketing and statistical analysis software programs.
  • Get involved with a professor’s research project or pursue an independent study to learn about the research process.
  • Gain experience with data entry and interviewing through part-time jobs or internships.
  • Plan on obtaining an advanced degree in business or statistics to qualify for more positions.
  • Graduates with bachelor’s degrees may qualify for entry-level positions such as junior or associate analysts.
  • Work experience in sales and other areas of marketing may prove beneficial.
  • Research certification by the Marketing Research Association.

Area

Purchasing/Procurement

  • Purchasing/Buying:
  • Wholesale

  • Retail
  • Agricultural

  • Operational
  • Contract or supply management

Employers

  • Manufacturers
  • Retail chains and stores
  • Wholesalers

  • Large corporations
  • Local, state, and federal government

  • Educational institutions
  • Hospitals

Strategies

  • Develop the skills most important to this field including: analytical, decision-making, communication, and negotiation.
  • Supplement curriculum with courses in supply chain management or logistics.
  • For federal government positions, become familiar with the application process. Maintain a high grade point average and plan to complete a federal internship.
    Be prepared to start in assisting positions and work your way up.
    Research the options that are available for certification, for example those offered by the American Purchasing Society.

Area

Social Media Management

  • Strategy
  • Content planning
  • Community management

  • Marketing and promotions
  • Blogging
  • Copy writing

  • Search engine marketing
  • Online customer service

Employers

  • Public relations firms
  • Marketing agencies
  • Advertising agencies

  • Social media management companies
  • Media outlets
  • Corporations in a variety of industries

  • Web application companies
  • Freelance

Strategies

  • Get experience with social media platforms (e.g., Facebook, YouTube, Twitter) and location- based social media sites (e.g. Yelp, Gowalla).
  • Be adept at learning new technology and tools quickly. Stay abreast of industry news.
  • Establish an online presence for yourself, and use it in your job search.
  • Complete an internship in social media.
  • Volunteer to maintain social media for campus organizations.
  • Develop skills important to this field including: communication, creativity, relationship building, and project management.
  • Take courses in journalism, copy writing, and technology.
  • Research an industry of interest to learn about its social media presence.
  • Learn how to effectively manage negative press.

Area

Management

Types of Management:

  • Entry-level/Management-trainee
  • Supervision of employees and operations
  • Human resource management:
  • Recruiting/Staffing
  • Project management

  •  Continued:
    • Team management
    • Information management
    • Operations management
    • Middle management
    • Top management

Employers

  • Nearly every type of organization across industries offer management positions:
    • Banks and financial institutions
    • Retail stores
    • Restaurants
    • Hotels and other facilities
    • Service providers
    • Healthcare organizations

  • Continued:
    • Manufacturers
    • Software and technology companies
    • Educational institutions
  • Local, state, and federal government
  • Nonprofit organizations
  • Self-employed

Strategies

  • Be prepared to start in entry-level management trainee positions or corporate rotational training programs.
  • Gain related experience through internships or summer and part-time jobs.
  • Work at a retail store or restaurant; advance into an assistant manager position.
  • Get involved in student organizations and assume leadership roles.
  • Demonstrate a strong work ethic, integrity, and a sense of independence.
  • Take courses in a secondary specialty such as marketing or information systems to increase job opportunities.
  • Learn to communicate effectively with a wide variety of people and to work well on a team.
  • Develop strong problem solving skills.

Area

Entertainment Marketing

  • Sales
  • Promotions
  • Marketing

  • Event planning
  • Public relations
  • Social media management

Employers

  • Music industry:
    • Concert promoters
    • Record labels
    • Radio stations
    • Artist management agencies

  • Sports industry:
    • Minor and major league teams
    • College and university athletics
    • Arenas, stadiums, and facilities
  • Festivals
  • Event planning companies

  • Marketing and public relations firms
  • Movie and television industry
  • Theaters
  • Nonprofits focused on arts and entertainment

Strategies

  • Seek multiple internships in area of interest, even if unpaid. Full-time positions are often difficult to obtain and require breaking in at the bottom level.
  • Gain experience in sales to prepare for this field.
  • Get involved with campus entertainment boards or event planning committees or work at the college radio or television station if possible.
  • Volunteer to promote a local band on your campus or in your city.
  • Work part-time or summer jobs at venues that host events or conferences.
  • Plan to relocate to larger cities for the most job opportunities.
  • Conduct informational interviews to build a network of contacts.

Area

Banking

  • Commercial Banking
  • Retail/Consumer Banking
  • Credit Analysis

  • Lending
  • Trust Services
  • Mortgage Services

  • Branch Management
  • Operations

Employers

  • Banks
  • Credit unions
  • Savings and loan associations

  • Financial services institutions
  • Wholesale lenders

  • Housing lenders
  • Federal Reserve banks

Strategies

  • Develop a solid background in business including finance and accounting.
  • Get experience through part-time, summer, or internship positions in a bank.
  • Develop strong interpersonal and communication skills in order to work well with a diverse clientele.

Area

Insurance

  • Sales
  • Claims
  • Underwriting
  • Risk management

  • Asset management
  • Loss control
  • Customer service

Employers

  • Insurance firms
  • Insurance brokers

Strategies

  • Complete an internship with an insurance agency.
  • Talk to professionals in the industry to learn more about claims, underwriting, and risk management. Many entry-level positions exist in these areas.
  • Initiative and sales ability are necessary to be a successful agent or broker.
  • Develop strong communication skills as many positions require interaction with others and the ability to explain information clearly and concisely.
  • There are many certifications in the insurance industry.  Research those relevant to your area.

Area

Real Estate

  • Brokerage/Sales
  • Residential
  • Commercial

  • Office and industrial
  • Farm and land
  • Property management

  • Appraising
  • Land development

Employers

  • Real estate brokers and firms
  • Banks
  • Appraisal firms

  • Apartment and condominium complexes
  • Leasing offices

  • Developers
  • Large corporations: Real estate departments

Strategies

  • Research the process of becoming a real estate broker through the National Association of Realtors. Every state requires a combination of real estate courses, passing an exam, and other criterion to gain a license.
  • Obtain sales experience through part-time, summer, or internship positions.
  • Develop an entrepreneurial spirit as nearly 60% of brokers and agents are self-employed.
  • Be willing to work evenings and weekends to accommodate clients’ schedules.
  • Investigate apprenticeships in appraisal if that is an area of interest.

General Information

  • Most entry-level positions for marketing majors reside in sales.  After gaining more experience, professionals can move into marketing management.
  • Marketing is good preparation for graduate study in business.  An MBA can open greater opportunities, particularly in areas of brand management and market research.
  • Gain as much relevant experience as possible through internships or summer and part-time jobs.
  • Join the American Marketing Association student chapter and seek leadership roles.
  • Develop excellent communication skills and the ability to work well with others.
  • Conduct informational interviews with or shadow professionals in careers of interest to learn about the field first hand.
  • Engage in personal networking to increase job possibilities.
  • Look for companies that hire new graduates into rotational training or corporate leadership development programs to gain exposure to multiple functional areas.
  • A willingness to relocate often opens more entry-level opportunities.

Area

Management information systems is the study of people, technology, and organizations.  Some areas of specialization are included:

Network Administration

  • Intranet, Local Area Networks (LANs), Wide Area Networks (WANs), Network Segments, Hardware, Software:
    • Development
    • Installation
    • Testing

  • Continued:
    • Monitoring
    • Maintenance
    • Security
    • Support

Employers

  • Most areas of business, industry and government:
    • Financial
    • Healthcare/medical
    • Manufacturing
    • Education
    • Consulting

  • Continued:
    • Retail
    • Nonprofit
    • Energy
    • Transportation
    • Consumer goods

  • Continued:
    • Media/entertainment
    • Hospitality
    • Construction
    • Telecommunications

Strategies

  • Seek technical work experience in university computer labs.
  • Develop effective analytical and problem solving skills and the ability to think strategically about technology.
  • Acquire strong oral and written communication skills and interest in helping others, particularly those who may have limited computer training.
  • Expect to spend a significant amount of time responding to inquiries from colleagues, customers, employees.
  • Obtain applicable certifications such as those offered by Cisco or Microsoft for network administrator roles.

Area

Database Administration

  • System or Application:
    • Development
    • Installation
    • Testing
    • Maintenance/Support

  • Continued:
    • Archiving/Security
    • Upgrading
    • Systems integration
    • Management

Employers

  • Most areas of business, industry and government:
    • Financial
    • Healthcare/medical
    • Manufacturing
    • Education
    • Consulting

  • Continued:
    • Retail
    • Nonprofit
    • Energy
    • Transportation
    • Consumer goods

  • Continued:
    • Media/entertainment
    • Hospitality
    • Construction
    • Telecommunications

Strategies

  • Develop logical thinking skills, attention to detail and the ability to concentrate for long periods of time.
  • Seek general knowledge of computer languages and database management software; consider specializing in one for increased marketability.
  • Acquire strong communication skills for working work with teams of programmers and with staff who may have limited computer training.
  • Plan to work with management to identify the goals of the database and analysts’ needs.

Area

Systems Development/Analysis

  • Planning
  • Analysis
  • Design

  • Implementation/Coding
  • Integration/Testing
  • Installation/Deployment

  • Operations/Maintenance
  • Evaluation
  • Disposal

Employers

  • Most areas of business, industry and government:
    • Financial
    • Healthcare/medical
    • Manufacturing
    • Education

  • Continued:
    • Consulting
    • Retail
    • Nonprofit
    • Energy
    • Transportation

  • Continued:
    • Consumer goods
    • Media/entertainment
    • Hospitality
    • Construction
    • Telecommunications

Strategies

  • Develop excellent interpersonal skills for effective communication with technical and non-technical colleagues and clients.
  • Gain knowledge of industries, business areas or government agencies of interest.  Complete a minor to gain specialized knowledge related to the field.
  • Strengthen logical thinking and problem solving skills.
  • Maintain current knowledge of computer languages and technology.
  • Gain programming experience and specialize for increased opportunities.
  • Obtain business experience through internships or part-time employment.
  • Supplement program with courses such as accounting, management, human resources, consulting to increase understanding of business theory.
  • Earn a graduate degree in technology or business  for advanced opportunities in analysis, project management and executive operations.

Area

Security

  • Monitoring
  • Testing
  • Research
  • Training

Employers

  • Most areas of business, industry, and government:
    • Financial
    • Healthcare/medical
    • Manufacturing
    • Education
    • Consulting

  • Continued:
    • Retail
    • Nonprofit
    • Energy
    • Transportation
    • Consumer goods

  • Continued:
    • Media/entertainment
    • Hospitality
    • Construction
    • Telecommunications

Strategies

  • Develop strong analytical skills, as well as attention to detail, to monitor computer systems for breaches and changes in performance.
  • Stay current on the field of cybersecurity, as security analysts are expected to develop preventative measures to protect and recover, if needed, their organizations’ data.
  • Plan to work in a particular organization or industry before advancing into a security position.  A  graduate degree such as a Master of Business Administration in information systems may be preferred for this advanced position.

Area

Web Development

  • Website:
    • Design
    • Programming/Development
    • Management
  • Administration

Employers

  • Internet-related companies:
    • Browsers
    • Search engines
    • Website design services
  • Most areas of business, industry, and government

Strategies

  • Gain experience in web development or maintenance through part-time jobs or internships.
  • Seek expertise in information architecture and usability.
  • Volunteer to design web sites for student organizations or community groups.
  • Learn web-related programming languages.
  • Develop problem solving and creative thinking skills.
  • Learn to work effectively in a team by participating in group projects or student organizations.

Area

Consulting

Employers

  • Consulting firms
  • Self-employed

Strategies

  • Develop exceptional analytical and interpersonal skills for communicating with clients.
  • Obtain a strong technical knowledge of computers, a background in business management and experience in systems analysis.
  • Become familiar with various programming languages and operating systems.
  • Earn applicable certifications.
  • Demonstrate abilities to self-motivate and work independently.

Area

Education/Training

Employers

  • Proprietary (for profit) schools
  • K-12 public and private schools
  • Colleges and universities

  • Corporations
  • Non-profit organizations

Strategies

  • Gain experience working with students through tutoring, part-time employment, internships in computer labs and/or other technical positions.
  • Develop excellent interpersonal and public speaking skills.
  • Inquire about certification which is required for K-12 teaching and varies by state.
  • Earn a graduate degree in information technology or a related field for increased opportunities.  A Master’s degree may be sufficient for teaching at community or two-year institutions.
  • Seek doctoral degree related to information sciences for teaching opportunities at colleges and universities.

Area

Other Areas

  • Technical support
  • Training
  • Technical writing

  • Marketing
  • Sales

Employers

  • Software, hardware, and systems developers
  • Technical service providers

Strategies

  • Develop excellent listening, verbal and written communication skills and patience.
  • Display interest and ability in customer problem solving.  A commitment to customer satisfaction is imperative.
  • Seek work experience in university computer labs and help desks.
  • Obtain general sales or customer service  experience.
  • Develop extensive knowledge of merchandise for retail sales positions.
  • Take technical writing courses to develop skills.

General Information

  • Professionals in this industry are excellent communicators who manage time efficiently.  They are detail- and big picture-oriented.
  • Expect to work extended and/or irregular hours at times and to be “on call.”
  • Prepare to learn new information on a regular basis through online discussions, classes, conferences, periodicals and update your skills accordingly.
  • Certifications may be necessary for some technical careers.  Obtain the certifications that are the most applicable to career goals and interests.
  • Gain as much diverse technical experience as possible.  Seek positions in computer labs, retail computer/technology stores or as technological support for any office or business.
  • Investigate technology in additional areas such as audio/visual or telecommunications.  Become familiar with the integration and application of these areas to management information systems.
  • Develop physical stamina and strength.  Many networking professionals are involved in hands-on, physical activity during network installation and maintenance.
  • Specialize in a specific area of business or industry and become familiar with the applicable software and hardware.  Earn a minor in your field of specialization i.e., biology for work with a scientific database.
  • Plan to earn a Master’s degree such as an MBA with a technology component for increased management opportunities.

 

NOTE: The Management Information Systems major is closely related to other majors such as Computer Information Systems, Information System, Information Sciences and Information Technology.  While each is unique, all are focused on the application of technology in various environments.  In contrast, Computer Science focuses on the theory of mathematical foundations required for the development of systems software such as operating systems and language translators.

Area

Management

  • Entry-level/Management-trainee
  • Supervision of employees and operations
  • Project management
  • Team management

  • Information management
  • Operations management (See Below)
  • Middle management
  • Top management

Employers

  • Nearly every type of organization across industries offer management positions:
    • Banks and financial institutions
    • Retail stores
    • Restaurants
    • Hotels and other facilities
    • Service providers

  • Continued:
    • Healthcare organizations
    • Manufacturers
    • Software and technology companies
    • Educational institutions

  • Local, state, and federal government
  • Nonprofit organizations
  • Self-employed

Strategies

  • Be prepared to start in entry-level management trainee positions or corporate rotational training programs.
  • Gain related experience through internships or summer and part-time jobs.
  • Work at a retail store or restaurant; advance into an assistant manager position.
  • Get involved in student organizations and assume leadership roles.
  • Demonstrate a strong work ethic, integrity, and a sense of independence.
  • Take courses in a secondary specialty such as marketing or information systems to increase job opportunities.
  • Learn to communicate effectively with a wide variety of people and to work well on a team.
  • Develop strong problem solving skills.

Area

Human Resource Management

  • Recruiting/Staffing
  • Compensation
  • Benefits
  • Training
  • Safety

  • Employee relations
  • Industrial relations
  • Organizational development

  • Equal employment opportunity
  • Employment law
  • Consulting

Employers

  • Large organizations in a variety of industries:
    • Banks and financial institutions
    • Retail stores
    • Restaurants
    • Hotels and other facilities

  • Continued:
    • Service providers
    • Healthcare organizations
    • Manufacturers
    • Software and technology companies
    • Educational institutions

  • Temporary or staffing agencies
  • Executive search firms
  • Local, state, and federal government
  • Labor unions
  • Major nonprofit organizations

Strategies

  • Take courses in the social sciences such as psychology and sociology.
  • Gain relevant experience through internships.
  • Hone your verbal and written communication skills.
  • Learn to solve problems creatively, and build strong conflict resolution skills.
  • Develop strong computer skills because many human resource systems are automated.
  • Join the Society of Human Resource Management and other related professional associations.
  • Be prepared for continuous learning once in the profession, and seek endorsements such as the Professional Human Resource Certification or Certified Employee Benefits Specialist.
  • Earn a master’s degree for career advancement or a law degree for employment law.

Area

Operations Management

  • Operations research analysis:
    • Business strategy
    • Facilities layout
    • Inventory control
    • Personnel scheduling

  • Production management:
    • Line supervision
    • Manufacturing management
    • Production planning
    • Quality assurance

  • Materials management:
    • Purchasing/buying
    • Traffic management
    • Inventory management

Employers

  • Manufacturers
  • Industrial organizations
  • Service organizations

Strategies

  • Develop strong analytical skills and a logical approach to problem solving.  Skills in budgeting and cost management are also important.
  • Take courses in logistics, statistics, or computer systems. This is a more technical side of management.
  • Learn to manage multiple situations and problems.
  • Be able to communicate effectively with different types of people in various functional areas.
  • Earn an MBA to reach the highest levels of operations management.

Area

Sales

  • Industrial sales
  • Consumer product sales
  • Financial services sales
  • Services sales

  • Advertising sales
  • Corporate sales
  • Manufacturer representation
  • Direct consumer sales

  • E-commerce
  • Customer service
  • Sales management:
    • District, regional, and higher

 

Employers

  • For-profit and nonprofit organizations
  • Product and service organizations
  • Manufacturers
  • Financial companies

  • Insurance companies
  • Print and electronic media outlets
  • Software and technology companies
  • Internet companies

Strategies

  • Obtain experience through internships or summer and part-time jobs.
  • Seek leadership positions in campus organizations.
  • Work for the campus newspaper, directory, or radio station selling advertisements.
  • Become highly motivated and well-organized.  Learn to work well under pressure and to be comfortable in a competitive environment.
  • Be prepared to work independently and to be self-motivated. Plan to work irregular and long hours.
  • Cultivate strong persuasion skills.  Learn how to communicate effectively with a wide range of people and build relationships. Take courses in interpersonal communication and public speaking.
  • Build a strong knowledge base of the product or service you are selling.
  • To deliver effective customer service, develop problem solving skills, self-confidence,  assertiveness, and empathy.  Become committed to customer satisfaction.
  • Some positions in sales, such as pharmaceuticals, require at least one to two years of a proven record in outside sales. Be prepared to start in a different industry before getting a job in pharmaceuticals.

Area

Insurance

  • Sales
  • Claims
  • Underwriting
  • Risk management

  • Asset management
  • Loss control
  • Customer service

Employers

  • Insurance firms
  • Insurance brokers

Strategies

  • Complete an internship with an insurance agency.
  • Talk to professionals in the industry to learn more about claims, underwriting, and risk management. Many entry-level positions exist in these areas.
  • Initiative and sales ability are necessary to be a successful agent or broker.
  • Develop strong communication skills as many positions require interaction with others and the ability to explain information clearly and concisely.
  • There are many certifications in the insurance industry.  Research those relevant to your area.

Area

Real Estate

  • Brokerage/Sales:
    • Residential
    • Commercial

  • Office and industrial
  • Farm and land
  • Property management

  • Appraising
  • Land development

Employers

  • Real estate brokers and firms
  • Banks
  • Appraisal firms

  • Apartment and condominium complexes
  • Leasing offices

  • Developers
  • Large corporations: real estate departments

Strategies

  • Research the process of becoming a real estate broker through the National Association of Realtors. Every state requires a combination of real estate courses, passing an exam, and other criterion to gain a license.
  • Obtain sales experience through part-time, summer, or internship positions.
  • Develop an entrepreneurial spirit as nearly 60% of brokers and agents are self-employed.
  • Be willing to work evenings and weekends to accommodate clients’ schedules.
  • Investigate apprenticeships in appraisal if that is an area of interest.

Area

Banking and Finance

  • Commercial banking
  • Retail/Consumer banking
  • Credit analysis

  • Lending
  • Trust services
  • Mortgage services

  • Branch management
  • Operations

Employers

  • Banks
  • Credit unions

  • Savings and loan associations
  • Financial services institutions
  • Wholesale lenders

  • Housing lenders
  • Federal Reserve banks

Strategies

  • Build a solid background in business including marketing and accounting.
  • Get experience through part-time, summer, or internship positions in a bank.
  • Develop strong interpersonal and communication skills in order to work well with a diverse clientele.

General Information

  • Management is a broad business degree that can lead to many career opportunities.  Students should clearly define their career goals and gain the skills and experiences needed through internships, part-time jobs, or summer positions.
  • Get involved in student organizations and seek leadership roles.
  • Learn to work well on a team and to interact effectively with a wide variety of people.
  • Strong communication skills, including public speaking, are important to achieving success in this field.
  • Conduct informational interviews with professionals in jobs of interest to learn about their work environments.
  • Join related professional organizations and pursue certifications in your area of interest.
  • Develop and utilize a personal network of contacts.  Once in a position, find an experienced mentor.
  • Look for companies that hire new graduates into rotational training or corporate leadership development programs to gain exposure to multiple functional areas.
  • A willingness to relocate often opens more entry-level opportunities.
  • Consider earning an MBA after gaining work experience to reach the highest levels of business management.

Area

Supply Chain Management

  • Planning and forecasting
  • Purchasing
  • Supplier sourcing
  • Operations management
  • Materials management

  • Inventory management
  • Vendor inventory management
  • Warehouse operations
  • Distribution
  • Systems management

  • Rate analysis
  • Performance analysis
  • Customer service
  • Global supply chain management

Employers

  • Manufacturers of:
    • Industrial goods
    • Consumer goods
  • Retailers
  • Wholesalers
  • Distributors

  • Service providers:
    • Banks and financial institutions
    • Hospitals
    • Hotels and restaurants
    • Educational institutions
  • State and local government

  • Federal government agencies:
    • Department of Defense
    • Armed Forces
    • Federal Emergency Management Agency
    • Department of Transportation

Strategies

  • Many entry-level positions as analysts, management trainees, or first line supervisors are available with manufacturers and retailers in particular.
  • Develop strong analytical and computer skills and a logical approach to problem solving.  Attention to detail is also important in this field.
  • Take courses in statistics and computer systems.
  • Learn to communicate with different types of people across functional areas.
  • Gain experience and build skills through a supply chain internship.
  • Get involved in student organizations and professional associations. Seek positions of leadership.
  • Obtain proficiency with enterprise resource planning (ERP) software like Oracle or SAP.
  • For government positions, maintain a high GPA and participate in a government internship program.
  • To work in the armed forces, consider participating in ROTC.
  • For global supply chain management positions:  Plan to start in domestic positions and work towards international assignments.  Learn about import/export laws.  Become familiar with how US Customs and other organizations regulate trade.  Cultivate foreign language skills and cultural awareness.

Area

Transportation/Carrier Management

  • Rate analysis
  • Pricing
  • Sales
  • Marketing

  • Customer service
  • Account management
  • Systems management
  • Transportation management

  • Traffic management
  • Dispatching
  • Fleet management

Employers

  • Trucking and moving companies
  • Air freight and air carriers
  • Rail freight and rail carriers
  • Ocean freight carriers

  • Ship lines
  • Shipping companies
  • Transportation companies
  • Pipeline companies

Strategies

  • Develop strong technical and analytical skills.
  • Learn to work well and communicate with different  types of people.
  • Gain experience with logistics and transportation through an internship.
  • Be willing to start in a hands-on position, such as a loading dock supervisor for a trucking company.  This allows employees to learn the business from the bottom up.
  • Become familiar with Department of Transportation regulations.
  • Understand that you may work long, irregular hours in this field.

Area

Third Party Logistics

  • Analysis
  • Demand forecasting
  • Sales
  • Customer service

  • Account management
  • Systems management
  • Warehouse operations
  • Inventory management

  • Dispatching
  • Transportation management
  • Freight management

Employers

  • Warehousers
  • Dedicated carriers
  • Freight forwarders
  • Third party logistics firms

Strategies

  • Gain experience through internships or summer jobs in logistics and/or sales.
  • Develop negotiation, persuasion, and communication skills.  Be comfortable communicating with professionals from varying backgrounds (e.g., technical or business).
  • Learn to problem solve effectively and to stay calm under pressure.
  • Demonstrate a high level of motivation, organization, and planning.

Area

Consulting

  • Supply chain consultants help their clients with projects:
    • Process re-engineering
    • Software selection
    • Information technology implementation

  • Continued:
    • Strategic sourcing
    • Logistics network design
    • Supply chain optimization

Employers

  • Consulting firms

Strategies

  • Learn to work well on a team.
  • Develop strong communication skills, both oral and written. Hone your presentation skills.
  • Complete one or more internships to gain relevant experience in supply chain management.
  • Obtain proficiency with enterprise resource planning (ERP) software like Oracle or SAP.
  • Demonstrate critical thinking skills and creativity.
  • New college graduates typically start in analyst positions.  Earn an MBA for advancement into associate and higher positions.

General Information

  • Many job opportunities exist in supply chain management, and they frequently transform as products and the marketplace change.  Stay abreast of the field through participation in the Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals.
  • The supply chain includes: marketing, product design, suppliers, manufacturing, logistics, customers, and reverse logistics. Jobs exist within all of these functions and processes.
  • Majors in supply chain management, logistics, transportation, and industrial engineering are particularly helpful to gain entry into this functional area.
  • Information technology, analytical, and quantitative skills are important in supply chain management. Develop flexibility, negotiation skills, and the ability to make sound decisions.
  • Join student professional organizations and seek campus leadership positions.
  • Complete one or more internships to gain related experience.
  • Learn to work well on a team and to work effectively with a wide variety of people.
  • Conduct informational interviews with professionals in jobs of interest to learn more about which functional areas and work environments are most appealing.
  • Some organizations may not have a “logistics” department. Also look for positions in operations, manufacturing, purchasing, or marketing.
  • Be willing to relocate to have more job opportunities.
  • Develop and utilize a personal network of contacts.  Once in a position, find a mentor.
  • Research relevant industry credentials such as the Certified Purchasing Manager (CPM) and Certification in Production and Inventory Management (CPIM).
  • Many professionals start their supply chain management careers as analysts.  Consider earning an MBA  after gaining a few years of work experience to reach the highest levels.

Area

Newspaper Publishing

  • Reporting
  • Editorial/column writing
  • Feature writing
  • Investigative journalism

  • Sports
  • Online journalism
  • Photo journalism
  • Editing

  • Proofreading
  • Circulation
  • Marketing/promotion
  • Production
  • Foreign correspondence

Employers

  • Large circulation newspapers
  • Local newspapers:
    • Dailies
    • Alternative weeklies

  • Wire services
  • Trade newspapers
  • Online publishers

Strategies

  • Obtain an internship or part-time job with a newspaper.
  • Work with a college newspaper, yearbook, or alumni publication.
  • Take an active role, preferably leadership, in journalism organizations.
  • Demonstrate curiosity, high energy level, and the abilities to produce under pressure and withstand criticism.
  • Develop excellent grammar and writing skills. Learn to think critically.
  • Create a portfolio of writing samples, especially those that have been published.
  • Seek opportunities for recognition and networking through writing contests and freelance writing submissions.
  • Build relationships with campus and community leaders and athletes for interview opportunities and experience.
  • Learn HTML and other computer programs to prepare for online work. This area of journalism is growing while print is declining.
  • Become comfortable working in a chaotic, deadline-oriented atmosphere.

Area

Magazine/Newsletter Publishing

  • Writing
  • Editing
  • Advertising/sales

  • Promotion
  • Circulation
  • Design, art, and production

  • Investigative journalism
  • Photo journalism
  • Sports journalism

Employers

  • Major publishers
  • Consumer magazines
  • News magazines
  • Specialized magazines
  • Mechnical and industrial publications

  • Professional publications/associations
  • Merchandising and trade publications
  • Labor unions

  • Academic journals
  • Corporate in-house publications
  • Religious organizations

Strategies

  • Complete an internship with a publisher.
  • Seek experience with on-campus or community publications.
  • Find a part-time or summer job with a newspaper, magazine, or print shop.
  • Obtain sales experience.
  • Join a professional journalism organization.
  • Demonstrate creative spirit, writing skills, verbal skills, and proofreading ability.
  • Create a portfolio of writing samples.
  • Consider obtaining a minor in photography for photojournalistic specialty.

Area

Book Publishing

  • Editing
  • Sales
  • Promotion

  • Publicity
  • Production
  • Subsidiary rights

Employers

  • Publishers:
    • Tradebooks
    • Children’s books
    • Paperbacks
    • Textbooks
    • Periodicals

  • Book clubs
  • University presses

  • Religious presses
  • Technical, scientific, or medical presses
  • Internet sites

Strategies

  • Attend a summer publishing institute to sharpen skills and build contacts.
  • Become familiar with word processing, desktop publishing, and web page design.
  • Gain knowledge of printing and production.
  • Work with local or regional magazines and campus publications.
  • Seek employment as sales clerk or book buyer in campus or local bookstore.
  • Supplement coursework with technical writing courses for opportunities with technical, scientific, and medical publications.
  • Be aware that a large portion of publishers are located in New York City.

Area

Writing

  • Technical writing
  • Science and medical writing
  • Freelance writing

  • Creative writing:
    • Books
    • Novels
    • Poetry
    • Plays
    • Screenplays
    • Scripts
    • Greeting cards
    • Lyrics/Jingle writing
    • Commercials
    • Blogs
  • Biographers

Employers

  • Newspapers
  • Magazines
  • Broadcast media companies including television, radio, and the movie industry

  • Internet sites
  • Trade, professional, or consumer publications
  • Technical industries
  • Large corporations

  • Government agencies
  • Universities and university presses
  • Self-employed/Freelance

Strategies

  • Supplement curriculum with relevant courses such as creative writing or technical writing.
  • Write for campus publications such as college newspapers, magazines, or departmental/ program newsletters.
  • Gain as much experience as possible through volunteer positions, internships, or part-time jobs.
  • Join professional journalism or communications organizations.
  • Perfect clear and concise writing abilities.
  • Volunteer to assist or tutor students in a writing center.
  • Become familiar with the proposal writing and submission process involved in freelance writing.
  • Submit manuscripts, essays, articles, etc. for publication.
  • Read widely in area of talent and/or interest (e.g., mystery novels, poetry).
  • Demonstrate patience and persistence in starting a career in creative writing.
  • For technical writing, develop a good understanding of the subject you are writing about.

Area

Electronic Media

  • Television
  • Radio programming/production
  • Electronic publishing

  • Video production
  • Broadcast journalism

  • Social media content
  • Visual communications
  • Social photography

Employers

  • Major networks
  • Public, cable, and private television stations
  • National, state, or regional radio networks

  • Independent radio syndications
  • Video production companies
  • Government agencies

  • Large corporations
  • Colleges and universities
  • Nonprofit organizations
  • Professional associations

Strategies

  • See “What Can I Do With a Major in Electronic Media” for more detailed information.
  • Gain experience with campus or local television and radio stations.
  • Secure an internship with a media corporation.
  • Develop a variety of technical and computer skills.
  • Create a personal website or blog to showcase work.
  • Choose a particular area of interest and build the skills and experiences necessary to qualify for that field.
  • Get involved with relevant student professional organizations.

Area

Education

  • Secondary

  • Post-Secondary

  • Publication advising

Employers

  • Public or private high schools

  • Colleges and universities

Strategies

  • Obtain state teacher certification for high school teaching opportunities.
  • Consider obtaining certification to teach additional subjects such as foreign language, social studies, or English.
  • Actively participate in campus newspaper and yearbook publications.
  • Volunteer to assist local high school students and sponsors with publications.
  • Obtain graduate degree (Masters and/or Doctorate) for college and university teaching opportunities.

Area

Business

  • Advertising
  • Public relations
  • Special events

  • Media relations
  • Fundraising
  • Business writing
  • Account services

  • Print production
  • Management
  • Administration

Employers

  • Advertising agencies
  • Corporate advertising or public relations departments

  • Media companies (e.g., Turner Broadcasting)
  • Non-profit organizations

  • Colleges and universities
  • Labor unions

Strategies

  • Work in sales at campus newspaper, television, or radio station.
  • Seek part-time or summer job with campus public relations or sports information department.
  • Gain experience in an area of interest through internships, part-time, or summer jobs.
  • Hone public speaking and communication skills.
  • Familiarize yourself with social media platforms and delivery methods of concise messaging.
  • Take at least one accounting class in preparation to write about financial topics.

  • Prosecution
  • Defense
  • Litigation

  • Contractual
  • Corporate

  • Nonprofit or public interest
  • Mediation
  • Lobbying

Employers

  • Law firms
  • Sole practitioner

  • Government agencies
  • Corporations

  • Public interest organizations
  • Colleges and universities

Strategies

  • Some students choose a journalism major in preparation for law school.
  • Develop strong research and writing skills through major courses.
  • Maintain a high grade point average and prepare for the Law School Admission Test (LSAT).
  • Secure strong faculty recommendations.
  • Participate in a debate or forensic team to hone communication skills.
  • Join pre-law organizations.
  • Work a part-time or summer job at a law office to gain exposure to the field.
  • Earn a law degree and pass the bar exam in order to practice law.

General Information

  • Internships are crucial in obtaining experience, building relationships, and reality testing career choices. Utilize your alumni network to make contacts.
  • Begin cultivating creative talents as soon as possible. Develop a portfolio of creative materials related to career goals.
  • Demonstrate enthusiasm, interpersonal skills, team work, integrity, good judgment, and intelligence.
  • Experience with campus publications is a must.
  • Develop excellent writing and grammar skills. Choose the most writing intensive coursework possible. Become familiar with Associated Press style and standard proof reading marks.
  • Read extensively in areas of interest.
  • The print publishing industry has declined significantly in recent years as many consumers turn toward other media outlets including television, radio, and Internet. Seek skills and experiences in these areas to qualify for a wider range of opportunities. For example, start a blog to hone computer skills.
  • Be prepared to begin a journalism career in a small market, performing entry-level tasks, before moving to larger markets and positions with more creative freedom and responsibility.
  • As the industry is tightening, applicants who have experience in a niche market, (e.g., religious publishing, or outstanding technical skills), will be more competitive.
  • Minoring in business administration, political science, technical communication, natural or social sciences, sport management, cinema studies, or art media may provide greater job opportunities and complement the major.
  • Journalism is good preparation for graduate programs in communication, law, political science, and other fields that require strong writing skills.
  • Pick electives in a variety of subjects as you may be asked to cover stories on many topics.
  • Take classes in computers, graphic design, and website management.
  • Develop a strong background in photography, as that component is becoming more prevalent in reporting.
  • Familiarize yourself with the on-the-go mobile video and audio applications to effectively communicate live updates.
  • Stay up to date with current events.